Ukraine name origin
The word “Ukraina” is first mentioned in Hypatian Codex in 1187 as the name of Pereyaslav and Galician, meaning “okraina” (outskirts).
There are several theories about “Ukraine” name origin. One of them says that the name originates from general Slavic “Ukraine”, “borderland”, which primarily referred to Kiev Rus border territories - Pereyaslav Principality. Later on “Ukraina” (eng. Ukraine) name referred to borderlands with Polish Kingdom and North-East Rus.
Nowadays, Ukrainian scientists debate this etymology, stating that the word “kray” (eng. edge, border) is the basic in word “Ukraina”, but in the meaning “ukrainivaya” (“to ukraine” eng. chiselling, carving, cutting) the part of Slavic lands for living. There was also another version, stating that Ukraine name originates from the word “kray” (eng. edge), “kraiyna” (eng. country, land) in the meaning “state”, “land populated with it’s people”, and “ukrayinets” (eng. Ukrainian) means “countryman”.
Before the beginning of the 20th century, “Ukraine” name was competing with “Malaya Rus” (eng. Little Russia). Bohdan Khmelnytsky used this word while corresponding with the Moscow Empire. The 18th-19th centuries saw the use of “ukrayintsi” (eng. Ukrainians) to avoid confusion with Russians (“velikorossy” eng. great Russians). The word “rusyny” is still preserved as the name for Easter-Slavic ethnic group also living in Western Ukraine and several other countries.