Feodosia (also spelled Feodosiya, Theodosia, Feodosiia) is a sea port and resort city situated in the southern part of Ukraine on the coast of the Black Sea, Crimea Republic. The city is located in south-eastern part of Crimean peninsula.
Feodosia population is about 70,000 (2012).
The phone code is +380 6562; postal codes - 98100-98175.
Feodosia was founded by Greek colonists in the 6th century BC. The settlement was named Theodosia. The surrounding area had rich agricultural lands. Theodosia was destroyed by Huns in the 4th century AD. For the next nine hundred years Theodosia was a small village.
In 1230, like the rest of Crimean peninsula Theodosia settlement was captured by Mongols. That time the village had the name Caffa or Kaffa. At the end of the 13th century the settlement was bought by Genoa merchants to increase their trade opportunities in the Black Sea region. In 1475, the town was captured by the Ottoman Empire and was named Kefe.
In 1783, the Russian Empire captured Crimean peninsula and the original name of the city was returned in its Russian version - Feodosia. During World War II, Feodosia was captured by the Nazi Germany forces two times. From 1954, Feodosia is under Ukrainian control like the rest of Crimean peninsula.
On the whole the climate in Feodosia is of moderate continental type with very mild winters and warm (quite often hot) summers. Average temperature is 11,9 degrees C above zero, it is the lowest (0,9 degrees C above zero) in January and the highest in July (23,4 degrees C above zero).
Resorts and sea transportation make up a basis of current economics of Feodosia. It is a climatic and balneological resort. Beside tourism and transportation the economy is based on wine-making, food, light industries, machine-building, agriculture and fishery. There is a tobacco-, furniture-making plants in the town as well as the following plants: mechanical, optical, ship repairing, juice-making, wine-making, of construction material.
Present day Feodosia is a popular resort city. It has a lot of beaches, mineral springs, mud baths. The city is well known for its rest homes. Major part of Feodosia population is ethnically Russian, so Ukrainian language is not used very often there.
Feodosia is not a big place. A lot of cafes and restaurants of the city are closed during off-season time. The season in Feodosia city starts from June and the high season is during July and August. Almost all of the tourists are from the former Soviet Union republics.
The city is known as the place where famous Russian seascape painter Ivan Aivazovsky lived and worked for all his life. Feodosia is the birth place of Russian aviation. There is a mountain named “Planernaya” in Feodosia which is still used for paragliding.
Feodosia being 26 centuries old managed to preserve not so many ancient buildings - huge losses brought by the war are not made up yet. The walls of Genoa towers have traces of war. Towers and fortress walls, gates of the citadel and the bridge are the architectural monuments of the 14th-15th centuries, heritage of Genoa period in the town history.
Historical Armenian and Greek churches date back to the same period. The period of the Ottoman Empire left its traces: a barbakan at St. Konstantin tower, a mosque and Turkish steam-houses.
Feodosia grew rapidly in the last quarter of the 19th and the first 15 years of the 20th century. When it became possible to arrive there by train and passenger ships Feodosia was visited by the richest trade families of the Russian Empire and by best intelligentsia.
In this period the following buildings were constructed: Aivazovsky Picture gallery (the complex consisting of original gallery of Aivazovsky, the artist’s house and his sister’s house), villas on Aivazovsky prospect, museum of local study, hotel “Astoria”, hydro- and meteorological center (at the back of Nazukin statue), a bank on Gorky street, a financial academy, a House of fleet officers.
A number of these buildings are preserved partly: the House of fleet officers was rebuilt of Feodosian synagogue, the hydro- and meteorological center and the bank on Gorky street were changed greatly during reconstruction.
To the places of interest of Feodosia refers Aivazovsky fountain constructed in 1888 at the artist’s expenses and by his own design and also monuments referring to World War period.
- National picture gallery named after I.K.Aivazovsky - it is the largest collection of Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky’s works in the world - 417 pieces;
- Museum of ancient things (of local study) - it was opened in 1811, the oldest provincial museum in Russia;
- Literary and memorial museum of Alexander Green;
- Museum of sculptor V.I.Mukhina;
- Museum of delta planes;
- Museum of money.