Feodosia (also spelled Feodosiya, Theodosia, Feodosiia) is a sea port and resort city located in the southern part of Ukraine on the coast of the Black Sea, Crimea Republic.
The population - 70,000 (2012).
Phone code - +380 6562; postal codes - 98100-98175.
It was founded by Greek colonists in the 6th century BC. The settlement was named Theodosia. The surrounding area had rich agricultural lands. Theodosia was destroyed by Huns in the 4th century AD. For the next nine hundred years Theodosia was a small village.
In 1230, like the rest of Crimean peninsula the settlement was captured by Mongols. That time the village had the name Caffa or Kaffa. At the end of the 13th century, the settlement was bought by Genoa merchants to increase their trade opportunities in the Black Sea region. In 1475, the town was captured by the Ottoman Empire and was named Kefe.
In 1783, the Russian Empire captured Crimean peninsula and the original name of the city was returned in its Russian version - Feodosia. During the World War II, the city was captured by the Nazi Germany forces two times. From 1954, it is under Ukrainian control like the rest of the Crimean peninsula.
The climate is of moderate continental type with very mild winters and warm (quite often hot) summers.
Average temperature is 11,9 degrees Celsius above zero, it is the lowest (0,9 degrees C above zero) in January and the highest in July (23,4 degrees C above zero).
Resorts and sea transportation make up a basis of current economics of the city. It is a climatic and spa resort. Beside tourism and transportation, the economy is based on wine-making, food, light industries, machine-building, agriculture and fishery.
The city has a lot of beaches, mineral springs, mud baths. It is well known for its sanatoriums. Major part of population is ethnically Russian, so Ukrainian language is not used very often there.
Feodosia is not a big place. A lot of cafes and restaurants of the city are closed during off-season time. The season starts from June and the high season is during July and August. Almost all of the tourists are from the former Soviet Union republics.
The city is known as the place where famous Russian seascape painter Ivan Aivazovsky lived and worked for all his life. Feodosia is the birth place of Russian aviation. There is a mountain named “Planernaya” which is still used for paragliding.
Feodosia, being 26 centuries old, managed to preserve not so many ancient buildings - huge losses brought by the war are not made up yet.
The walls of Genoa towers have traces of war. Towers and fortress walls, gates of the citadel and the bridge are the architectural monuments of the 14th-15th centuries, heritage of Genoa period in the town history.
Historical Armenian and Greek churches date back to the same period. The period of the Ottoman Empire left its traces: a barbakan at St. Konstantin tower, a mosque and Turkish steam-houses.
The town grew rapidly in the last quarter of the 19th and the first 15 years of the 20th century. When it became possible to arrive there by train and passenger ships it was visited by the richest trade families of the Russian Empire and by intelligentsia.
In this period the following buildings were constructed:
- Aivazovsky Picture Gallery (the complex consisting of original gallery of Aivazovsky, the artist’s house and his sister’s house);
- Villas on Aivazovsky Prospect;
- Museum of Local Study;
- Hotel “Astoria”;
- The Hydro- and Meteorological Center;
- The Bank on Gorky Street;
- The Financial Academy;
- The House of Fleet Officers.
A number of these buildings are preserved partly. The hydro- and meteorological center and the bank on Gorky Street were changed greatly during reconstruction.
Aivazovsky fountain, constructed in 1888, at the artist’s expenses and by his own design is worth seeing. Also there are several monuments referring to the Second World War period.
- National Picture Gallery named after I.K.Aivazovsky - the largest collection of Aivazovsky’s works in the world;
- Museum of Local History - opened in 1811, it was the oldest provincial museum in the Russian Empire;
- Literary and Memorial Museum of Alexander Green;
- Museum of Sculptor V.I.Mukhina;
- Museum of Delta Planes;
- Museum of Money.