Ukraine is rich in natural resources: coal, iron ore, manganese, nickel and uranium, and others. The reserves of sulfur are the largest in the world, the reserves of mercury ore are the second largest. Also more than 5% of world reserves of iron ore are concentrated in Ukraine.
There are oil and gas deposits but their reserves are not significant (the reserves of these fossil fuels were partly depleted during the Soviet period).
Coal is the main fossil fuel of Ukraine. It is mined in the Donetsk and Lviv-Volyn basins. Donetsk Basin (Donbass) is the largest in Ukraine. It is located on the territory of Donetsk and Lugansk oblasts.
The area of the basin is about 60,000 sq. km. (50,000 sq. km. within Ukrainian border). The eastern part of the Donetsk Basin is located in Rostov oblast of Russia. Industrial coal mining began in 1795.
This region, in east-central Ukraine, is industrial heartland of the country and one of the major heavy-industrial and mining-metallurgical complexes of Europe. The region is the most urbanized, and russified area of Ukraine. The key cities are Kharkov, Dnepropetrovsk, and Donetsk.
Besides its basic mining industries, Donetsk Basin has highly developed ferrous-metals industries that produce iron and steel in large quantities. Durable goods manufactured in Donetsk Basin include mining and metallurgical equipment, diesel locomotives, and tractors.
Ukraine is rich in building materials (granite, marble, labradorite, chalk, marl, sandstone). The largest reserves of granite and labradorite are found in Zhitomir oblast.
In the volume of Ukrainian industrial production mining industry accounts for 11,1%.
Ukrainian chemical industry produces large amounts of coke, mineral fertilizers, and sulfuric acid. Ukrainian food-processing industries yield granulated sugar and meat, fruit, and dairy products.
Light industry and consumer goods sectors of Ukraine are underdeveloped in comparison to its heavy industry and agriculture.